Earth - Database
Type Planet
Class Temperate Terra (L)
Satellites 1
Life Forms Organic Multicellular
Life Biomes Marine, Terrestrial
Life Origin Abiogenesis
Diameter 12,742 km
Mass 1 M
Density 5.5153 g/cm^3
Oblateness .00335
Surface Temp. 15° Celsius
Albedo 0.367
Rotational Period 23h:56m:04.09s
Gravity 9.807 m/s^2 (1 g)
Average Cosmic Velocity 9.55 Km/s
Orbital Type Elliptical
Period 1.000 years
Semi-Major Axis 1 AU
Influence Sphere Radius 927485.264 km
Satellite Roche Limit 9487.540 km
Tropopause Height 11.179 km
Height of Homogeneous 8.628 km
Atmospheric Pressure 1 atm
Air Density 1.2929 kg/m^3
Speed of Sound 340.29 m/s
Greenhouse Effect 33 °C
Average Molar Mass 28.964
Relative Mass 8x10^-7
Atmosphere Mass 8x10^-7 M
ESI v. 1
PHRI v. 1


Earth (or the Earth) is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets but the only known planet to currently support and contain life.


Earth formed 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within one billion years. The planet is home to millions of species, including humans. Earth's biosphere has significantly altered the atmosphere and other abiotic conditions on the planet, enabling the proliferation of aerobic organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer which, together with Earth's magnetic field, blocks harmful solar radiation, permitting life on the land. The physical properties of the Earth, as well as its geological history and orbit, have allowed life to persist during this period. Estimates on how much longer the planet will be able to continue to support life range from a mere 500 million years, to as long as 2.3 billion years.

Earth's outer surface is divided into several rigid segments, or tectonic plates, that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of the surface is covered by salt water oceans, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands which together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. Earth's poles are mostly covered with solid ice (Antarctic ice sheet) or sea ice (Arctic ice cap). The planet's interior remains active, with a thick layer of relatively solid mantle, a liquid outer core that generates a magentic field, and a solid iron inner core.

Earth interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon. At present, Earth orbits the Sun every 366.26 times it rotates its own axis, which is equal to 365.26 solar days, or one sidereal year. The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular of its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days). Earth's only known satellite, the Moon, which began orbiting it about 4.53 billion years ago, provides ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt, and gradually slows the planet's rotation. Between approximately 3.8 billion and 4.1 billion years ago, numerous asteroid impacts during the late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment.


Transcript from Space Engine in-built wiki.